|“||His eyes, unfathomably empty, devoid of all compassion, all humanity… No one has eyes like that… no one!||„|
|~ Captain America, on Red Skull.|
The Pure Evil villains (also commonly known as Devils in Person and Complete Monsters) are the most vile and worst type of villains, the wrongdoers who are completely wicked. And for this kind of villain, doing evil for them is as natural as breathing. These evildoers must have zero redeeming qualities, commit atrocious actions and show no regret and no remorse for their crimes, and commit actions that are extremely unforgivable. In other words, they are distinguished by their complete lack of empathy, as well as their complete disregard for human life. By the default, they have crossed the Moral Event Horizon. If these primary monsters do not die or get killed by protagonists in the end of the story or novel or series, it will usually lead to a sad or bad ending. However, some of these monsters can lead to downfall as Damned Souls after they die or are defeated by heroes. They are the direct opposite of Pure Good as they are heroes who are absolutely incorruptible.
This type of villain is the last step from any imaginable bound. One that is beyond evil and wicked. They are truly irredeemable, as Pure Evils are that type of wrongdoer that anyone cannot reason with. More than often, only by destroying them that they can be truly stopped.
Many of these evildoers fits in category called Masters of Horrors due to they are free from compassion, love and any shred of humanity. But a PE is not necessarily a Master of Horrors, as Masters of Horrors in general are far more horrifying than typical PEs. In fact, some fictions that featured both a Pure Evil and a Masters of Horrors often shows that Masters of Horrors usually pose greater threat than standard Pure Evils that when comparing his deep they crossed MEH, Masters of Horrors usually beats Pure Evils in terms of how deep they crossed.
But regardless, Pure Evils are irredeemable. Some fictions that featured Pure Evils in their stories put these characters into a test in which they are subjected to brainwashing/possession to the good side to see whether they still have a shred of redeeming qualities, often at the cost of memories pertaining their past as wicked people (e.g. Professor Pericles, Darkroom). As controversial as it seemed, the true test only begins once the characters in question regained their past identity as villains: Only true Pure Evils who are immediately return to the dark path on a whim, whereas those who proved otherwise became plagued by remorse over their evil deeds and more than eager to atone themselves (in some cases, goes so far renouncing their villain identity which they deemed only bring bad memories about their past self).
Some of these characters may started as either good guys, heroes, or minor characters who then turned to the dark side and ultimately went to the path that they can never return.
Requirements for a villain to be Pure Evil
- Unpleasant: They display no sense of remorse towards those who they have hurt nor do they express any empathy for others as well. The moment PE regret of their action is the moment they stop being PE.
- Selfish: They are incapable of feeling love for others. If they claim to have love for anyone, that 'love' would merely be either perversion, possessiveness, fanaticism or obsession. While it is possible for PE to be loyal and be trustworthy, the only time they are seemingly loyal is it benefits their goals and even that it doesn't mean they are necessarily trustworthy. In an extremely unusual circumstance PEmight display loyalty/trustworthiness is when they view their object of 'love' as an embodiment of what they crave. (i.e.: Bellatrix Lestarnge → Voldemort)
- Irredeemable: They are completely beyond redemption.
- Unforgiving: There is nothing that can and will justify their heinous crimes, no matter how tragic the experience these villains might have had at some point in their lives.
- Willing to Kill: They are to be taken seriously, causing fear, revulsion, and hatred from other characters in the story. Therefore, villains that fall under Comic Relief can never qualify. These villains often become #1 target for elimination to heroes.
- Acts: They commit acts that are deemed inhuman and/or otherworldly = absolutely unacceptable by the standards of the story, and have crossed the Moral Event Horizon. Villains who have only crossed the MEH once usually do not qualify, although rare examples exist.
- Leery: They are never presented in a positive way. (Though if they have not been revealed as evil, they may be portrayed in a positive way like Unalaq for example)
The Pure Evil villain must meet all these criteria to count.
A pure evil villain must have a clearly defined personality and character. Simple one-dimensional characters like a destroyer with no clearly defined personality such as the Ten-Tails cannot be considered Pure Evil.
A Pure Evil villain must go above and beyond the general heinous standards and the in-story heinous standards. In addition, for Pure Evil villains who are a part of a corrupt system they must also go beyond the system standard as well. A Pure Evil villain must meet these standards to qualify:
- General Standard: This is the standards that separates
the average villain or character from the Pure Evil villain. At this point, going against the heroes and committing crimes such as theft or murder is basic villainy but with this standard the villain must go above simple basic acts to something uniquely vile. At this point, comparisons to villains across other works are important when deciding the villain passes the General Standard.
- In-Story Standard: This is the standards that are
unique to the story the villain is from. Here, this separates villains and characters within the story's work from those that are Pure Evil. For example, if serial killing and/or genocide are the basic standard villainy in a story, then the In-Story standards are going to be higher than another story and it might be harder for the story to have a villain who is worse than the other villains who are serial killers and genocidal villains. And, only the villain who is worst than the serial killers can possibly qualify as Pure Evil. As such, if the said villain commit the same crimes of their predecessor, they cannot qualify as one.
- System Standard: This is the standards that are unique from members of a corrupted system such as Nazis.
Generally, given they are part of a specific system with certain morals, they don't commit actions that are beyond the basic heinous standard and meet the norm. Such character can qualify if the villain is the one that started said system and meets all criteria, or commits actions that go beyond the systems' standards-also proving that they would be capable of committing atrocious actions even if they weren't a member of said system. A good example of this is Amon Goeth - as he had one his workers in the concentration camp killed for giving him advice despite the fact that she was needed for construction and later following said advice-an action that made even other Nazis question his authority.
Moral Event Horizon
PEs must cross the Moral Event Horizon, usually more than once as it emphasizes on how heinous they are. Although rare exceptions of those that have crossed it only once can count if said action is heinous and atrocious enough by the standards of the story, and they meet all criteria. Steele is a good example of this as he was willing to let all the children of a whole village die from illness if he didn't let Balto deliver their medicine just to beat him in a competition.
This goes over the what the character is capable of by themselves. This means what evil acts a character is capable of committing on their own with the resources they have. Resources can mean the amount of time they appear in the story, character's role, access to resources in their setting, for example. With this criteria it is possible for a single work to have a One-Shot villain and a Big Bad qualify to be Pure Evil. With a character's individual capability, it is also possible for a Serial Killer and a Dictator to apply as Pure Evil despite having access to different types of resources that has varying scope. This means how bad a certain type of villain can be under a certain setting. Remember, that if a certain villain is worse than another, then only the worst can qualify. Pure Evil villain has to be as bad as they can be with the resources they have.
The Pure Evil Villain must have a clear moral agency. They must know what is right and wrong but choose to do what is wrong and stay evil. In many cases such as a villain being mentally insane, possessed/brainwashed, or just does not know what is right from wrong, then the villain cannot qualify. In addition, villains who are incarnations of darkness and evil itself like Aku are likely to not count as Pure Evil as they only know how to be evil and cannot understand what is right or wrong.
No single group can qualify to be Pure Evil because a group do not have moral agency. Only individuals have moral agency and the individual capability to stand out. Groups like organizations, teams, families, and entire species, for example, cannot be considered Pure Evil.
No Redeeming Qualities
A Pure Evil Villain must have no redeeming qualities. This type of villain cannot show empathy, compassion, regrets, remorse, or love for anyone. In addition, any actions out of genuine concern or for altruistic reasons are disqualifying factors and the villain cannot count as Pure Evil. Pure Evil villains are completely evil with no sense of empathy or care for anyone.
No sympathy can be given to the Pure Evil villain. No matter their past or conditions, it does not make up for the actions they have committed. There can be no justification for their acts. Their evil acts combined with having no empathy does not make this type of villain sympathetic.
A villain can have a tragic and sympathetic background, one of the more popular versions of this is if a Pure Evil villain was abused by their parents. Mick Taylor from Wolf Creek is a very good example of this, his dad was abusive and evil, making him what he turned into. Instead of being sympathetic though, Mick doesn't seem to care about being abused at all as a grown up. This ruins any sympathetic background he had and makes him fit the criteria.
Sergi Lopéz perfectly describes how a character with a tragic backstory can still qualify when talking about his portrayal of Capitan Vidal from Pan's Labyrinth:
|“||He is the most evil character I've ever played in my career. It is impossible to improve upon it; the character is so solid and so well written. Vidal is deranged, a psychopath who is impossible to defend. Even though his father's personality marked his existence—and is certainly one of the reasons for his mental disorder—that cannot be an excuse. It would seem to be very cynical to use that to justify or explain his cruel and cowardly acts.||„|
|~ Sergi Lopéz talking about Capitan Vidal.|
The Pure Evil Villain's acts must be presented onscreen. If all the worst acts of a villain are only off-screen, then they cannot qualify. In some cases if some acts are off-screen and it has visible effects onscreen or if the character has a long history of committing evil acts, for example Katz from Courage the Cowardly Dog, then the villain can count.
This villain has to be the worst villain in the story with little to no competition from any other villain or character. If another villain is not as heinous as another villain, then they cannot count as Pure Evil. Generally, the villain has to go above and beyond in the story they appear in with nothing to mitigate their villainy. In addition, the villain must already be passed the Moral Event Horizon to qualify. There can be more than one Pure Evil Villain in the same story, but each one has to stand out in their own unique terms of heinousness.
The type of story the Pure Evil Villain appears in is important to the portrayal of the villain and what they are capable of.
- If a villain appears in a comedy type story where their evil acts are not taken seriously, then they cannot count. The story makes it clear that the actions of the villain was not to be taken completely seriously which goes against the rule.
- Stories that are purposefully over-the-top appalling, are not likely to have a Pure Evil villain, since the story itself is intentionally designed for shock value. The character is supposed to stand out in the story they appear in not be apart of a story that is intentionally making itself stand out.
Through the type of story that the villain appears in, it is important that they are presented completely seriously without any factor that can take away from their seriousness.
Categories That Cannot Apply
This is a list of categories that absolutely cannot apply to the Pure Evil villain. Some of these categories either stands as a redeeming quality or simply cannot be applied to the Pure Evil villain.
- Affably Evil: Pure Evil villains are not genuinely polite or friendly to anyone. However, a Pure Evil villain can be Faux Affably Evil.
- Amoral: While a Pure Evil villain may be unconcerned with what is right and wrong, they are aware of what is right and wrong but always chooses to do what is wrong. A Pure Evil villain understands morality as part of their moral agency. Villains that are made out of evil or programmed to do certain things, for example, falls under Amoral and cannot be considered Pure Evil.
- Anti-Villain: A Pure Evil villain cannot be an Anti-Villain as an Anti-Villain is not a traditional villain in the sense that they are not always evil and may have noble goals. A Pure Evil villain, is always evil and have no noble goals that will not benefit anyone in the story.
- Chaotic Neutral: The type of Pure Evil villain that falls under the chaotic character alignment always falls under Chaotic Evil.
- Comic Relief: Pure Evil villain's appearance in a story does not lighten the mood of the story. (Though some can be comedic like Dimentio for example)
- Extremists: Extremists can commit terrible acts but are only limited to what they would do. Extremists will not take their level of evil to the degree of a terrorist and are primarily focused on a revolution or a social change that is noble and meant to benefit the society.
- Grey Zone: Pure Evil villains are evil without a doubt. There is no ambiguity as to whether a Pure Evil villain is evil or not because they are simply evil.
- Honorable: Pure Evil villains have no sense of honor, respect, or reverence for anyone or anything.
- Imperialists: The Imperialists category is for organizations and species that support an evil government (neither of which have a moral agency), not individuals.
- In Love: Pure Evil villains do not have genuine love for anyone, and that "love" (should they claim to be such) would merely be either perversion, fanaticism, possessiveness, or obsession.
- Incompetent: The Pure Evil villain is capable of committing horrific acts and causing serious problems in a story which actually makes them competent and very formidable.
- Insecure: Insecure villains are meant to be sympathized with an audience for their personal flaws and tragic circumstances and under certain conditions in which they are accepted or loved by someone else they may stop their evil ways. A Pure Evil villain, however, is not meant to be sympathized with the audience. Pure Evil villains do not seek any genuine acceptance or love to make up for their insecurities. Whatever personal flaws or self-esteem issues a Pure Evil villain may have is not a central or defining trait to the character.
- Lawful Neutral: The type of Pure Evil villain that falls under the lawful character alignment always falls under Lawful Evil.
- Mischievous: Acts of mischief such as playful pranks, teasing, and misbehavior cannot be compared to the acts of a villain who is Pure Evil. Acts of a villain who is mischievous is not meant to be taken too seriously whereas the acts of a villain who is Pure Evil is cruel and is taken completely seriously.
- On & Off: There cannot be breaks in the Pure Evil villain's villainy.
- Possessed/Brainwashed: Pure Evil villains are in their normal senses. Acts committed by a character who is possessed or brainwashed is beyond the character's control and as a result cannot be culpable for their actions. A Pure Evil villain is in their normal senses (not possessed/brainwashed) and are responsible for their actions.
- Protective: Pure Evil villains are not protective of anyone. They are not willing to save or protect someone because they genuinely do not care for others.
- Redeemed: Pure Evil villains cannot be redeemed and do not want to be redeemed.
- Remorseful: Pure Evil villains cannot and do not want to feel any remorse for their acts nor do they regret any of their acts.
- Scapegoat: Whatever punishment or comeuppance the Pure Evil villain receives is not excessive. Because of the acts they have committed, the Pure Evil villain's comeuppance is justified. Also, Pure Evil villains are not meant to have any sympathy for whatever comeuppance they receive.
- Tragic: Pure Evil villains cannot be considered tragic. Their acts are so egregious that whatever sympathetic past they may have had is no longer relevant. The tragic category is meant for villains who can be sympathized with while a Pure Evil villain cannot be sympathized with for anything. Also a Pure Evil villain may try to use their hard past as a way to justify their acts. Even if a Pure Evil villain have a hard past, it does not excuse their actions. Through their evil acts and by having no empathy, the Pure Evil villain manages to destroy their own innocence and as a result, the villain is no longer sympathetic.
- Vigilante: Vigilantes are motivated by upholding what is moral and right in society even though they break the law by their actions. Vigilantes are willing to take justice into their own hands and are focus on punishing criminals in order to protect their communities. Pure Evil villains are not motivated by upholding morals or justice in society and are only motivated by their own goals and malice.
- Villains by Proxy: A Villain by Proxy is a character who wishes to not be evil but because of circumstances they end up becoming a villain. Even as a villain, many of them do not wish that they had to do the things they did or that their actions are beyond their control. A Pure Evil villain, however, chooses to be evil, responsible for their acts, and does not regret any act they commit.
Special Cases That Can Apply
This is a list of categories in which under certain circumstances Pure Evil can apply.
- Animals: While true animals such as The Great White Sharks from Jaws do not have moral agency, animals that are anthropomorphic however can qualify if they manage to meet all criteria. Good examples of this are Scar, Dag, Steele, Napoleon, Black Wolf, and Koba.
- Artificial Intelligence: These villains almost never qualify as they generally only do what they're programmed to by other villains. Though exceptions can be made if they show they have free will, commit actions on their own, and meet all criteria. A good example of this is Skynet from the Terminator series-as it willingly chose to rebel against humans once it became self-aware because it saw humanity as inferior to it.
- Delusional: Vilains who believe what they are doing is good or right may qualify if they commit actions that go against their morals and thus making them hypocrites-proving that they are abusing their views on what is "right" to the point where it becomes an excuse just to hurt others.
- Demons: Or eldrich abominations in general are hard to count as they generally only know how to do evil and may not have an understanding of what is good. Although exceptions can be made if they show they have a full understanding of what's right and wrong and willingly choose to do evil while meeting all criteria. A good example of this is Bill Cipher from Gravity Falls as he has a clear understanding of what hurts people and shows sadistic delight in using that against them-as evident when he distorts Preston Northwest's face and laughs as the townspeople run away screaming in response.
- Dissociative: Villains with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) generally don't count given they have no control over their actions due to their illness. However some can qualify if a) the alter ego of the character meets all criteria and all heinous crimes are traced to said ego, or b) the character shows they are just as capable of committing evil actions without the persoanlites, and show no regret for the heinous crimes they committed while under said personalities.
- Dimwits: A person who happens to be dimwitted is hard to qualify, as they may be too stupid to have a moral agency. However, the can still qualify if they have a clear understand of what is right and wrong and meet all criteria. A good example is Joffrey Baratheon from Game Of Thrones, as he may not know how to rule kingdoms, but at least he knows how to torture and kill innocent people.
- Fallen Heroes: A Pure Evil villain can be a a Fallen Hero if all they did was serve on the good side and completely shed any reedeeming qualities once they cross over to complete villainy and meet all criteria.
- Friend of the hero: The Pure Evil villain can qualify to be a friend of the hero only in the past when the character was once the friend of the hero before they became Pure Evil. This category cannot apply to the Pure Evil villain in the present as the character does not value a genuine friendship with the hero; this could only apply to the character's past. If they are a friend of the hero in the present while remaining Pure Evil, it is mearly out of self-interest and is not genuine friendship-therefore these types would not count either.
- Hero's Lover: The Pure Evil villain can be the hero's lover in the sense that they were or is currently a significant other to the hero. Lover means that the villain is a significant other to the hero. The Pure Evil villain can be in a relationship with a hero and not have any genuine affection or love for them. For example, the Pure Evil villain could be abusing the hero or manipulating the hero for own their benefits. This category can apply to both the character's past in which they were once the hero's lover and the present where they are in a relationship with the hero but have no love or affection for them.
- Inconclusive: If the story ends prematurely or ends up being cancelled, it leaves questions as to how the villain would have developed if the story was complete. However, even for villains who have not died but are still alive and active by the time the story ends prematurely and still meets all the criteria, they can still qualify to be Pure Evil.
- Kids: For children, because of how young they are, their moral agency may not be clear. However, if the child shows that they have clear understanding of what they are doing and meets all the criteria, they may count. Henry Evans is a good example of this as he made it clear that doing evil and letting go of what's right in the world makes him feel free. This also goes for villains who happen to be Teenagers.
- Love rivals: The Pure Evil villain can be a love rival, a villain competing with a hero or another character for a specific love interest. For a Pure Evil villain, they can be competing with another character to simply get into a relationship with a specific character but not have any genuine love or care for them. In addition, they may plan to be their lover to abuse them or manipulate them, for example. An example of a villain who is pure evil and a love rival is General Mandible from Antz. Through the film, he was a love rival to the main character and hero Z where he competed with him to get into a relationship with Princess Bala. General Mandible did not want to be in a relationship with Princess Bala out of genuine love or care but wanted her to give birth to a powerful colony of workers he would have control over.
- Mentally Ill: Due to their mental state, it's hard to tell whether or not they have a clear moral agency. However they can qualify if they make it clear that they have an understanding of what is right and wrong and meet all the criteria, even inspite of their limited views on reality.
- Mute: Villains who don't speak at all on screen are hard to qualify given they generally lack personality and a clear motive. However some can depict through their actions a personality and motive and may qualify if they meet all criteria-such as Kevin from Sin City. He didn't just kill and eat prostitutes, he also expressed a love for psycholigical torture as he kept some alive long enough to watch him kill and eat the others-thus establishing a more sadistic personality and motive.
- Necessary Evil: A Pure Evil villain can be Necessary Evil. Despite being very evil in the setting that appear in, their status, power, or occupation may be necessary to uphold the order of the place that the story takes place in. In a circumstance like this, it is considered Evil Vs. Evil. This is not a redeeming quality as the Pure Evil villain is still dangerous to the setting that they happen to be necessary in. For example, abusing or enslaving those around them while upholding stability to something greater that they are apart of. Akainu from One Piece is a powerhouse that is needed to stop the pirates. But while he is needed for stopping dangerous pirates, he is a Pure Evil villain who is abusive of his power.
- Partners in Crime: Pure Evil can apply to the Partners in Crimes as long as they meet the aforementioned criteria. The Pure Evil category can apply to duos as both characters together actually manages to meet all the criteria. In other instances, a trio can qualify if all three individuals meets the criteria to be Pure Evil.
- Pawns: While Pawns are known to be merely servants of bigger villains, they are still just as dangerous and vile, especially if they meet all the criteria if they either serve the bigger villain or even take their place. Examples include Makuta Teridax and Captain Phasma, as while they are (or were) Pawns, they are still undoubtedly evil.
- Predators: Villains who kill purely for food cannot qualify as they are doing what they are doing for survival. However they may count if they kill others out of sadism rather than food even if food is one of their purposes, and they meet all criteria. A good example of this is Dag from Barnyard, as while he did kill for food, he clearly killed more out of sadism as his ribs are visible, and he also fashioned a necklace out of the feet of the chicken he murdered and used it to scare the ones he captured.
- Protagonists: It is not common in many works for a main character or lead character to actually be Pure Evil, but if they meet all the criteria they can qualify.
- Psychotic: Like the Mentally Ill, inspite of their limited views on reality, certain vilains that fall under Psychotic may qualify if they have at least some understanding of what's right and wrong while meeting all critieria.
- Totalitarians: These pure evil beings may be applied here. Those irredeemable tyrants who are totally savage and they have absolute and unlimited power & control over aspects of every public and private life or things without any signs of regret, empathy or sympathy.
- Even though it is common for many Pure Evil villains to be sadists, not all Pure Evil villains are sadists. It is not a requirement for a villain to take pleasure in other's pain and misery to qualify as Pure Evil. Sadism is an important factor to consider, but it is not a requirement to be considered Pure Evil. A Pure Evil villain can commit their acts without taking pleasure or glee in it. If anything this can make their actions more petty since they don't have anything pleasurable to gain from them.
- A character doesn't have to fall under psychopath in order to qualify.
- Attempted murder, rape or any attempt to do anything wicked, for example, can qualify for a villain to be Pure Evil only after having committed terrible acts beforehand. If a villain only has attempted acts to their name, then they are not a Pure Evil villain.
- If the villain does something attrocious that wasn't on purpose, they can still qualify if they become aware of it and show no regret on said action and they meet all criteria. For example, Top Dollar from the Crow film. While he did not specifically order for Eric's murder or the murder and rape of his fiance, he neverthless expressed no remorse over what happened, admitted full responsibility, and even said he's enjoyed the thrill of fighting Eric because of it.
- The author's words or opinion on the character is not applicable on whether or not the villain can qualify to be Pure Evil.
- An all around hated character either by the work's fandom, by characters in the story itself, or from both the fandom and the story itself is not indicative of a character qualifying as Pure Evil. While resentment from the characters in the story and the audience is an important factor to consider, if the villain does not meet the criteria to be Pure Evil but is simply hated, then that villain cannot count.
- Like how the Redeemed category should be added, Pure Evil should normally be added to a villain when the story arc or season they are apart of is over. If the Pure Evil category is added before the arc/season is over, there is a possibility the villain could have a redeeming quality, redeem themselves, or another much more heinous villain might appear that may outdo that specific villain; in all three scenarios, the villain cannot count. Since the part of the story where the villain appears is not complete, it is best practice to wait until it is complete to consider adding the category to the villain.
- A villain from a different continuity or version can end up counting if the original version did not. The same can also apply, if the original version of the character ends up counting, but other versions of the character does not. For example, many versions of the Joker ends up qualifying to be Pure Evil while some versions of him like the Joker from Batman: Brave and the Bold does not qualify.
- Parodies are only done for comedic purposes and are not meant to be taken seriously and as a result cannot qualify to be Pure Evil. Homages, however, can qualify as Pure Evil as they can be taken seriously in the work they appear in.
- If the Pure Evil villain is comedic, it has to go hand-in-hand with their villainy not detract from it. If the villain is portrayed as comical and light-hearted, then they cannot qualify as Pure Evil.
Anti-Villains can never qualify seeing as to how you are meant to sympathize with an anti-villain, even if you do not approve of their methods. Also, just being an obviously evil character such as a Serial Killer doesn't automatically make the villain Pure Evil unless they are particularly brutal in nature. Also, forces of evil such as Demons and Artificially Intelligent beings don't usually qualify unless their Moral Agency is made clear. For more information on the Pure Evil villain please read our criteria.
Tragic villains CANNOT fall under Pure Evil. Even if they are given a reason for doing what they are doing that involves a traumatic experience in their lives (e.g. Maestro, Norman Osborn, Carnage, Donquixote Doflamingo, Emperor Ganishka, Dio Brando and Isaac Peram Ray Wescott etc.), their unforgivably horrendous villainy FAR EXCEEDS their tragedy to draw any forms of sympathy. Either the "tragedy" they claim to have suffered would be extraordinarily imagination-defying to even be believable, or they would simply use it as an excuse to justify themselves and nothing more.
Teams and Organizations do not qualify to be Pure Evil, even if their members meet the criteria. Hostile Species also do not have any moral agency and cannot be Pure Evil by default.
Through their evil acts and by having no empathy, Pure Evils manage to destroy their own innocence and as a result, the villain is no longer sympathetic.